Since the attacks of September 11, 2001, the United States has converted to the Israeli doctrine with regard to the Arab and Muslim world. Gunboat diplomacy prevailed: Afghanistan and Iraq for the US; Lebanon and Gaza for the Israelis. Georges Bush’s Greater Middle East project corresponds perfectly to the principles of Israeli foreign policy that he tried to implement in Lebanon by promoting the birth of sectarian states. The United States assumes that the centralized nation-state has failed in the Middle East because of the sectarian cleavages (religion or tribes) that divide society. It is therefore necessary to impose a new governance based on the federal principle which guarantees the autonomy of the communities and respect for democracy: Iraq constitutes the laboratory of the Greater Middle East with its three entities: Kurdish, Sunni Arab and Shiite Arab . Syria and Lebanon have everything to fear for their territorial unity and Bashar El Assad’s regime is particularly in the line of fire.